to 10 deg. S., the great bulk of the export comes from the coast districts
at the head of the Gulf of Guinea. A larger supply, equal to any market
demand, could easily be obtained. A third valuable product is the timber
supplied by the forest regions, principally in West Africa. It includes
African teak or oak (Oldfieldia africana), excellent for shipbuilding; the
durable odum of the Gold Coast (Chlorophora excelsa); African mahogany
(Khaya senegalensis); ebony (Diospyros ebenum); camwood (Baphia nitida);
and many other ornamental and dye woods. The timber industry on the west
coast was long neglected, but since 1898 there have been large exports to
Europe. In parts of East Africa the Podocarpus milanjianus, a conifer, is
economically important. Valuable timber grows too in South Africa,
including the yellow wood (Podocarpus), stinkwood (Ocotea), sneezewood or
Cape ebony (Euclea) and ironwood.
Other vegetable products of importance are: Gum arabic, obtained from
various species of acacia (especially A. senegal), the chief supplies of
which are obtained from Senegambia and the steppe regions of North Africa
(Kordofan, &c.); gum copal, a valuable resin produced by trees of the
leguminous order, the best, known as Zanzibar or Mozambique copal, coming
from the East African Trachylobium hornemannianum, and also found in a
fossil state under the soil; kola nuts, produced chiefly in the coast-lands
of Upper Guinea by a tree of the order Sterculiaceae (Kola acuminata);
archil or orchilla, a dye-yielding lichen (Rocella tinctoria and
triciformis) growing on trees and rocks in East Africa, the Congo basin,
&c.; cork, the bark of the cork oak, which flourishes in Algeria; and alfa,
a grass used in paper manufacture (Machrochloa tenacissima), growing in
great abundance on the dry steppes of Algeria, Tripoli, &c. A product to
which attention has been paid in Angola is the Almeidina gum or resin,
derived from the juice of Euphorbia tirucalli.
The cultivated products include those of the tropical and warm temperate
zones. Of the former, coffee is perhaps the most valuable indigenous plant.
It grows wild in many parts, the home of one species being in Kaffa and
other Galla countries south of Abyssinia, and of another in Liberia. The
Abyssinian coffee is equal to the best produced in any other part of the
world. Cultivation is, however, necessary to ensure the best results, and
attention has been given to this in various European colonies. Plantations
have been established in Angola, Nyasaland, German East Africa, Cameroon,
the Congo Free State, &c.
Copra, the produce of the cocoa-nut palm, is supplied chiefly by Zanzibar
and neighbouring parts of the east coast. Groundnuts, produced by the
leguminous plant, Arachis hypogaea, are grown chiefly in West Africa, and
the largest export is from Senegal and the Gambia; while Bambarra ground-
nuts (Voandzeia subterranea) are very generally cultivated from Guinea to
Natal. Cloves are extensively grown on Zanzibar and Pemba islands, Pemba
being the chief source of the world's supply of cloves. The chief drawbacks
to the industry are the fluctuations of the yield of the trees, and the
risk of over-production in good seasons.
Cotton grows wild in many parts of tropical Africa, and is exported in
small quantities in the raw state; but the main export is from Egypt, which
comes third among the world's sources of supply of the article. It is also
cultivated in West Africa—the industry in the Guinea coast colonies having
been developed since the beginning of the 20th century—and in the Anglo-
Egyptian Sudan, whence came the plants from which Egyptian cotton is
grown. Sugar, which is the staple crop of Mauritius, and in a lesser degree
of Reunion, is also produced in Natal, Egypt, and, to a certain extent, in
Mozambique. Dates are grown in Tunisia and the Saharan oases, especially
Tafilet; maize in Egypt, South Africa and parts of the tropical zone; wheat
in Egypt, Algeria and the higher regions of Abyssinia; rice in Madagascar.
Wine is largely exported from Algeria, and in a much smaller quantity from
Cape Colony; fruit and vegetables from Algeria. Tobacco is widely grown on
a small scale, but, except perhaps from Algeria, has not become an
important article of export, though plantations have been established in
various tropical colonies. The cultivation of cocoa has proved successful
in the Gold Coast, Cameroon and other colonies, and in various districts
the tea plant is cultivated. Indigo, though not originally an African
product, has become naturalized and grows wild in many parts, while it is
also cultivated on a small scale. The main difficulty in the way of
tropical cultivation is the labour question, which has already been
Of animal products one of the most important is ivory, the largest export
of which is from the Congo Free State. The diminution in the number of
elephants with the opening up of the remoter districts must in time cause a
falling-off in this export. Beeswax is obtained from various parts of the
interior of West Africa, and from Madagascar. Raw hides are exported in
large quantities from South Africa, as are also the wool and hair of the
merino sheep and Angora goat. Both hides and wool are also exported from
Algeria and Morocco, and hides from Abyssinia and Somaliland. Ostrich
feathers are produced chiefly by the ostrich farms of Cape Colony, but some
are also obtained from the steppes to the north of the Central Sudan. Live
stock, principally sheep, is exported from Algeria and cattle from Morocco.
The exploited minerals of Africa are confined to a few districts, the
resources of the continent in this respect being largely
undeveloped. Since the discovery of gold in the Transvaal, particularly in
the district known as the Rand (1885), the output has grown enormously, so
that in 1898 the output of gold from South Africa was greater than from any
other gold-field in the world. The Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902 lost the
Rand the leading position, but by 1905 the output—in that year over L.
20,800,000—was greater than it had ever been. The supply of gold from South
Africa is roughly 25% of the world's output. The gold-yielding formations
extend northwards through Rhodesia. The Gold Coast is so named from the
quantity of gold obtained there, and since the close of the 19th century
the industry has developed largely in the hands of Europeans. In the Galla
countries gold has long been an article of native commerce. It is also
found in various parts of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and along the western
shore of the Red Sea. Diamonds are found in large quantities in a series of
beds known as the Kimberley shales, the principal mines being at Kimberley,
Cape Colony. Diamonds are also found in Orange River Colony, while one of
the richest diamond mines in the world—the Premier—is situated in the
Transvaal near Pretoria. Some 80% of the world's production of diamonds
comes from South Africa. Copper is found in the west of Cape Colony, in
German South-West Africa, and in the Katanga country in the southern Congo
basin, where vast beds of copper ore exist. There are also extensive
deposits of copper in the Broken Hill district of Northern Rhodesia. It
also occurs in Morocco, Algeria, the Bahr-el-Ghazal, &c. Rich tin deposits
have been found in the southern Congo basin and in Northern Rhodesia. Iron
is found in Morocco, Algeria (whence there is an export trade), and is
widely diffused, and worked by the natives, in the tropical zone. But the
deposits aregenerally not rich. Coal is worked, principally for home
consumption, in Cape Colony, Natal, the Transvaal, Orange River Colony, and
in Rhodesia in the neighbourhood of the Zambezi. Coal deposits also exist
in the German territory north of Lake Nyasa. Phosphates are exported from
Algeria and Tunisia. Of other minerals which occur, but are little worked,
zinc, lead and antimony are found in Algeria, lead and manganese in Cape
Colony, plumbago in Sierra Leone.
The imports from foreign countries into Africa consist chiefly of
manufactured goods, varying in character according to the development of
the different countries in civilization. In Egypt, Algeria and South Africa
they include most of the necessaries and luxuries of civilized life,
manufactured cotton and woollen goods, especially the former, taking the
first place, but various food stuffs, metal goods, coal and miscellaneous
articles being also included. In tropical Africa, and generally where few
Europeans have settled, the great bulk of the imports consists as a rule of
cotton goods, articles for which there is a constant native demand.
No continent has in the past been so lacking in means of communication as
Africa, and it was only in the last decade
Development of means of communication.
of the 19th century that decided steps were taken to remedy these defects.
The African rivers, with the exception of the middle Congo and its
affluents, and the middle course of the three other chief rivers, are
generally unfavourable to navigation, and throughout the tropical region
almost the sole routes have been native footpaths, admitting the passage of
a single file of porters, on whose heads all goods have been carried from
place to place. Certain of these native trade routes are, however, much
frequented, and lead for hundreds of miles from the coast to the interior.
In the desert regions of the north transport is by caravans of camels, and
in the south ox-wagons,before the advent of railways, supplied the general
means of locomotion. The native trade routes led generally from the centres
of greatest population or production to the seaports by the nearest route,
but to this rule there was a striking exception. The dense forests of Upper
Guinea and the upper Congo proved a barrier which kept the peoples of the
Sudan from direct access to the sea, and from Timbuktu to Darfur the great
trade routes were either west to east or south to north across the Sahara.
The principal caravan routes across the desert lead from different points
in Morocco and Algeria to Timbuktu; from Tripoli to Timbuktu, Kano and
other great marts of the western and central Sudan; from Bengazi to Wadai;
and from Assiut on the Nile through the Great Oasis and the Libyan desert
to Darfur. South of the equator the principal long-established routes are
those from Loanda to the Lunda and Baluba countries; from Benguella via
Bihe to Urua and the upper Zambezi; from Mossamedes across the Kunene to
the upper Zambezi; and from Bagamoyo, opposite Zanzibar, to Tanganyika.
Many of the native routes have been superseded by the improved
communications introduced by Europeans in the utilization of waterways and
the construction of roads and railways. Steamers have been conveyed
overland in sections and launched on the interior waterways above the
obstructions to navigation. On the upper Nile and Albert Nyanza their
introduction was due to Sir S. Baker and General C. G. Gordon (1871-1876);
on the middle Congo and its affluents to Sir H.M. Stanley and the officials
of the Congo Free State, as well as to the Baptist missionaries on the
river; and on Lake Nyasa to the supporters of the Scottish mission. A small
vessel was launched on Victoria Nyanza 1896 by a British mercantile firm,
and a British government steamer made its first trip in November 1900. On
the other great lakes and on most of the navigable rivers steamers were
plying regularly before the close of the 19th century. However, the
shallowness of the water in the Niger and Zambezi renders their navigation
possible only to light-draught steamers. Roads suitable for wheeled traffic
are few. The first attempt at road-making in Central Africa on a large
scale was that of Sir T. Fowell Buxton and Mr (afterwards Sir W.)
Mackinnon, who completed the first section of a track leading into the
interior fromDar-es-Salaam (1879). A still more important undertaking was
the ``Stevenson road,'' begun in 1881 from the head of Lake Nyasa to the
south end of Tanganyika, and constructed mainly at the expense of Mr James
Stevenson, a director of theAfrican Lakes Company—a company which helped
materially in the opening up of Nyasaland. The Stevenson road forms a link
in the ``Lakes route'' into the heart of the continent. In British East
Africa a road connecting Mombasa with Victoria Nyanza was completed in
1897, but has since been in great measure superseded by the railway. Good
roads have also been made in German East Africa and Cameroon and in
Railways, the chief means of affording easy access to the interior of the
continent, were for many years after their first introduction to Africa
almost entirely confined to the extreme north and south (Egypt, Algeria,
Cape Colony and Natal). Apart from short lines in Senegal, Angola and at
Lourenco Marques, the rest of the continent was in 1890 without a railway
system. In Egypt the Alexandria and Cairo railway dates from 1855, while in
1877 the lines open reached about 1100 miles, and in 1890, in addition to
the lines traversing the delta, the Nile had been ascended to Assiut. In
Algeria the construction of an inter-provincial railway was decreed in
1857, but was still incomplete twenty years later, when the total length of
the lines open hardly exceeded 300 miles. Before 1890 an extension to Tunis
had been opened, while the plateau had been crossed by the lines to Ain
Sefra in the west and Biskra in the east. In Senegal the railway from Dakar
to St Louis had been commenced and completed during the 'eighties, while
the first section of the Senegal-Niger railway, that from Kayes to
Bafulabe, was also constructed during the same decade. In Cape Colony,
where in about 1880 the railways were limited to the neighbourhood of Cape
Town, Port Elizabeth and East London, the next decade saw the completion of
the trunk-line from Cape Town to Kimberley, with a junction at De Aar with
that from Port Elizabeth. The northern frontier had, however, nowhere been
crossed. In Natal, also, the main line had not advanced beyond Ladysmith.
The settlement, c. 1890, of the main lines of the partition of the
continent was followed by many projects for the opening up of the
possessions and spheres of influence of the various powers by the building
of railways; several of these schemes being carried through in a
comparatively short time. The building of railways was undertaken by the
governments concerned, nearly all the African lines being state-owned. In
the Congo Free State a railway, which took some ten years to build,
connecting the navigable waters of the lower and middle Congo, was
completed in 1898, while in 1906 the middle and upper courses of the river
were linked by the opening of a line past Stanley Falls. Thus the vast
basin of the Congo was rendered easily accessible to commercial enterprise.
In North Africa the Algerian and Tunisian railways were largely extended,
and proposals were made for a great trunk-line from Tangier to Alexandria.
The railway from Ain Sefra was continued southward towards Tuat, the
project of a trans-Saharan line having occupied the attention of French
engineers since 1880. In French West Africa railway communication between
the upper Senegal and the upper Niger was completed in 1904; from the
Guinea coast at Konakry another line runs north-east to the upper Niger,
while from Dahomey a third line goes to the Niger at Garu. In the British
colonies on the same coast the building of railways was begun in 1896. A
line to Kumasi was completed in 1903, and the line from Lagos to the lower
Niger had reached Illorin in 1908. Thence the railway was continued to the
Niger at Jebba. From Baro, a port on the lower Niger which can be reached
by steamers all the year round, another railway, begun in 1907, goes via
Bida, Zungeru and Zaria to Kano, a total distance of 400 miles. A line from
Jebba to Zungeru affords connexion with the Lagos railway.
But the greatest development of the railway systems was in the south and
east of the continent. In British East Africa a survey for a railway from
Mombasa to Victoria Nyanza was made in 1892. The first rails were laid in
1896 and the line reached the lake in December 1901. Meanwhile, there had
been a great extension of railways in South Africa. Lines from Cape Town,
Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban and Delagoa Bay all converged on the
newly risen city of Johannesburg, the centre of the Rand gold mines. A more
ambitious project was that identified with the name of Cecil Rhodes,
namely, the extension northward of the railway from Kimberley with the
object of effecting a continuous railway connexion from Cape Town to Cairo.
The line from Kimberley reached Bulawayo in 1897. (Bulawayo is also reached
from Beira on the east coast by another line, completed in 1902, which goes
through Portuguese territory and Mashonaland.) The extension of the line
northward from Bulawayo was begun in 1899, the Zambezi being bridged,
immediately below the Victoria Falls, in 1905. From this point the railway
goes north to the Katanga district of the Congo State. In the north of the
continent a step towards the completion of the Cape to Cairo route was
taken in the opening in 1899 of the railway from Wadi Haifa to Khartum. A
line of greater economic importance than the lastnamed is the railway
(completed in 1905) from Port Sudan on the Red Sea to the Nile a little
south of Berber, thus placing the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan within easy reach of
the markets of the world. A west to east connexion across the continent by
rail and steamer, from the mouth of the Congo to Port Sudan, was arranged
in 1906 when an agreement was entered into by the Congo and Sudan
governments for the building of a railway from Lado, on the Nile, to the
Congo frontier, there to meet a railway starting from the river Congo near
Stanley Falls. A railway of considerable importance is that from Jibuti in
the Gulf of Aden to Harrar, giving access to the markets of southern
Besides the railways mentioned there are several others of less
importance. Lines run from Loanda and other ports of Angola towards the
Congo State frontier, and from Tanga and Dar-es-Salaam on the coast of
German East Africa towards the great lakes. In British Central Africa a
railway connects Lake Nyasa with the navigable waters of the Shire, and
various lines have been built by the French in Madagascar.
All the main railways in South Africa, the lines in British West Africa,
in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and in Egypt south of Luxor are of 3 ft. 6 in.
gauge. The main lines in Lower Egypt and in Algeria and Tunisia are of 4
ft. 8 1/2 in. gauge. Elsewhere as in French West and British East Africa
the lines are of metre (3.28 ft.) gauge.
The telegraphic system of Africa is on the whole older than that of the
railways, the newer European possessions having in most cases been provided
with telegraph lines before railway projects had been set on foot. In
Algeria, Egypt and Cape Colony the systems date back to the middle of the
19th century, before the end of which the lines had in each country reached
some thousands of miles. In tropical Africa the systems of French West
Africa, where the line from Dakar to St Louis was begun in 1862, were the
first to be fully developed, lines having been carried from different
points on the coast of Senegal and Guinea towards the Niger, the main line
being prolonged north-west to Timbuktu, and west and south to the coast of
Dahomey. The route for a telegraph line to connect Timbuktu with Algeria
was surveyed in 1905. The Congo region is furnished with several
telegraphic systems, the longest going from the mouth of the river to Lake
Tanganyika. From Ujiji on the east coast of that lake there is telegraphic
communication via Tabora with Dar-es-Salaam and via Nyasa and Rhodesia with
Cape Town. The last-named line is the longest link in the trans-continental
line first suggested in 1876 by Sir (then Mr) Edwin Arnold and afterwards
taken up by Cecil Rhodes. The northern link from Egypt to Khartum has been
continued southward to Uganda, while another line connects Uganda with
Mombasa. At the principal seaports the inland systems are connected with
submarine cables which place Africa in telegraphic communication with the
rest of the world.
Numerous steamship lines run from Great Britain, Germany, France and
other countries to the African seaports, the journey from any place in
western Europe to any port on the African coast occupying, by the shortest
route, not more than three weeks. (E. HE., F. R. C.)
1 Further conferences respecting the liquor traffic in Africa were held
in Brussels in 1899 and 1906. In both instances conventions were signed by
the powers, raising the minimum duty on imported spirituous liquors.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.—Authoritative works dealing with Africa as a whole in any
of its aspects are comparatively rare. Besides such volumes the following
list includes therefore books containing valuable information concerning
large or typical sections of the continent:—
sec. I. General Descriptions.—(a) Ancient and Medieval. Herodotus, ed. G.
Rawlinson, 4 vols.1 (1880); Ptolemy's Geographia, ed. C. Muller, vol. i.
(Paris, 1883-1901); Ibn Haukal, ``Description de l'Afrique (transl. McG. de
Slane), Nouv. Journal asiatique, 1842; Edrisi, ``Geographie'' (transl.
Jaubert), Rec. de voyages . . . Soc. De Geogr. vol. v. (Paris, 1836);
Abulfeda, Geographie (transl. Reinaud and Guyard, Paris, 1848-1883); M. A.
P.d'Avezac, Description de l'Afrique ancienne (Paris, 1845); L. de Marmol,
Description general de Africa (Granada, 1573); L. Sanuto, Geografia dell'
Africa (Venice, 1588); F. Pigafetta, A Report of the Kingdom of Congo, &c.
(1597); Leo Africanus, The History and Description of Africa (transl. J.
Pory, ed. R. Brown), 3 vols. (1896); O. Dapper, Naukeurige beschrijvinge
der afrikaensche gewesten, &c. (Amsterdam, 1668) (also English version by
Ogilvy, 1670, and French version, Amsterdam, 1686); B. Tellez, ``Travels of
the Jesuits in Ethiopia,'' A New Collection of Voyages, vol. vii. (1710);
G. A. Cavazzi da Montecuccolo, Istorica Descrittione de tre Regni Congo,
Matamba, et Angola (Milan, 1690) (account of the labours of the Capuchin
missionaries and their observations on the country and people); J. Barbot,
``Description of the Coasts of North and South Guinea and of Ethiopia
Inferior,', Churchill's Voyages, vol. v. (1707); W. Bosman, A New . . .
Description of the Coasts of North and South Guinea, &c., 2nd ed. (1721);
J. B. Labat, Nouvelle relation de l'Afrique occidentale, 5 vols. (Paris,
1728); Idem, Relation historique de l'Ethiopie occidentale, 5 vols. (Paris,
1732). (b) Modern. B. d'Anville, Memoire conc. les rivieres de l'interieur
de l'Afrique (Paris, n.d.); M. Vollkommer, Die Quellen B. d'Anville's fur
seine kritische Karte von Afrika Munich, 1904); C. Ritter, Die Erdkunde, i.
Theil, 1. Buch, ``Afrika'' (Berlin, 1822); l. M`Queen, Geographical and
Commercial View of Northern and Central Africa (Edinburgh, 1821 ); Idem,
Geographical Survey of Africa ( 1840); W. D. Cooley, Inner Africa laid open
(1852); E. Reclus, Nouvelle geographie universelle, vols. x.-xiii. (1885-
1888); A. H. Keane, Africa (in Stanford's Compendium), 2 vols., 2nd ed.
(1904-1907); F. Hahn and W. Sievers, Afrika, 2. Aufl. (Leipzig, 1901); M.
Fallex and A.Mairey, L'Afrique au debut du XXe siecle (Paris, 1906); Sir C.
P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vols. iii. and iv.
(Oxford, 1894, 1904); F. D. and A. J. Herbertson, Descriptive Geographies
from Original Sources: Africa (1902); British Africa (The British Empire
Series, vol. ii., 1899); Journal of the African Society; Comite de
l'Afrique francaise, Bulletin, Paris; Mutteilungen der afrikan.
Gesellschaft in Deutschland (Berlin, 1879-1889); Mitteilungen . . . aus den
deutschen Schutzegebieten (Berlin); H. Schirmer, Le Sahara (Paris, 1893);
Mary H.Kingsley, West African Studies, 2nd ed. (1901); J. Bryce,
Impressions of South Africa (1897); Sir Harry Johnston, The Uganda
Protectorate, 2 vols. (1902) (vol ii. is devoted to anthropology); E. D.
Morel, Affairs of West Africa (1902).
sec. II. Geography (Physical), Geology, Climate, Flora and Fauna. — (For
Descriptive Geogr. see sec. I.)—G. Gurich, ``Uberblick uber den geolog. Bau
des afr. Kontinents,'' Peterm. Mitt., 1887; A. Knox, Notes on the Geology
of the Continent of Africa (1906) (includes a bibliography); L. von Hohnel,
A. Rosiwal, F. Toula and E. Suess, B eitrage zur geologischen Kenntniss des
omstlichcn Afrika (Vienna, 1891);
E. Stromer, Die Geologie der deutschen Schutzgebieten in Afrika (Munich,
1896); J. Chavanne, Afrika im Lichte uniserer Tage: Bodengestalt, &c.
(Vienna, 1881); F.Heidrich, ``Die mittlere Hohe Afrikas,'' Peterm. Mitt.,
1888; J. W. Gregory, The Great Rift-Valley (1896); H. G.Lyons, The
Physiography of the River Nile and its Basin (Cairo, 1906); S. Passarage,
Die Kalahari: Versuch einer physischgeogr. Darstellung . . . des sudafr.
Beckens (Berlin, 1904); Idem, ``Inselberglandschaften im tropischen
Afrika,'' Naturw. Wochenschrift, 1904. 654-665; J. E. S. Moore, The
Tanganyika, Problem (1903); W. H. Hudleston, ``On the Origin of the Marine
(Halolimnic) Fauna of Lake Tanganyika,'' Journ. Of Trans. Victoria Inst.,
1904, 300-351 (discusses the whole question of the geological history of
equatorial Africa); E.Stromer, ``Ist der Tanganyika ein Rellikten-See?''
Peterm. Mitt., 1901, 275-278; E. Kohlschutter, ``Die . . . Arbeiten der
Pendelexpedition . . . in Deutsch-Ost-Afrika,'' Verh. Deuts.
Geographentages Breslau, 1901, 133-153; J. Cornet, ``La geologie du bassin
du Congo,'' Bull. Soc. Beige geol., 1898; E. G. Ravenstein, ``The
Climatology of Africa'' (ten reports), Reports Brit. Association, 1892-
1901; Idem, ``Climatological Observations . . . I. Tropical Africa''
(1904); H. G. Lyons, ``On the Relations between Variations of Atmospheric
Pressure . . . and the Nile Flood,'' Proc. Roy. Soc., Ser. A, vol. lxxvi.,
1905; P. Reichard, ``Zur Frage der Austrocknung Afrikas,'' Geogr.
Zeitschrift, 1895; J. Hoffmann, ``Die tiefsten Temperaturen auf den
Hochlandern,'' &c., Peterm. Mitt., 1905; G. Fraunberger, ``Studien uber die
jahrlichen Niederschlagsmengen des afrik. Kontinents,'' Peterm. Mitt.,
1906; D. Oliver and Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Flora of) Tropical Africa, 10
vols. (1888-1906); K. Oschatz, Anordnung der Vegetation in Afrika
(Erlangen, 1900); A. Engler, Hochgebirgs-flora des tropischen Afrika
(Berlin, 1892); Idem, Die Pflanzenwelt Ostaftikras und der Nachbargebiete,
3 vols. (Berlin, 1895); Idem, Beitrage zur Flora von Afrika (Engler's
Botan. Jahrbucher, 14 vols. &c.); W. P. Hiern, Catalogue of the African
Plants Collected by Dr Friedrich Welwitsch in 1853-1861, 2 vols. (1896-
1901); R. Schlechter, Westafrikanische Kautschuk-Expedition (Berlin, 1903);
H. Baum, Kunene-Sambesi-Expedition (Berlin, 1903) (largely concerned with
botany); W. L. Sclater, ``Geography of Mammals, No. iv. The Ethiopian
Region,'' Geog. Journal, March 1896; H. A. Bryden and others, Great and
Small Game of Africa (1899); F. C. Selous, African Nature Notes and
Reminiscences (1908); E. N. Buxton, Two African Trips: with Notes and
Suggestions on Big-Game Preservation in Africa (1902) (contains photographs
of living animals); G. Schillings, With Flash-light and Rifle in Equatorial
East Africa (1906); Idem, In Wildest Africa (1907) (striking collection of
photographs of living wild animals); Exploration scientifique de l'Algerie:
Histoire naturelle, 14 vols. and 4 atlases, Paris (1846-1850); Annales du
Musee du Congo: Botanique, Zoologie (Brussels, 1898, &c.). The latest
results of geographical research and a bibliography of current literature
are given in the Geographical Journal, published monthly by the Royal
sec. III. Ethnology.—H. Hartmann, Die Volker Afrikas (Leipzig, 1879); B.
Ankermann, ``Kulturkreise in Afrika,'' Zeit. f. Eth. vol. xxxvii. p. 34;
Idem, ``Uber den gegenwartigen Stand der Ethnographie der Sudhalfte
Afrikas,'' Arch. f. Anth. n.f. iv. p. 24;G.Sergi, Antropologia della stirpe
camitica (Turin, 1897); J. Deniker, ``Distribution geogr. et caracteres
physiques des Pygmees africains,'' La Geographie, Paris, vol. viii. pp. 213-
220; G. W. Stow and G. M. Theal, The Native Races of South Africa (1905);
K. Barthel, Volkerbewegungen auf der Sudhalfte des afrik. Kontinents
(Leipzig, 1893); A. B. Ellis, The Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast
(1887); Idem, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast (1890); Idem, The
Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast (1894); H. Ling Roth, Great
Benin, its Customs, &c. (Halifax, 1903); H. Frobenius, Die Heiden-Neger des
agyptischen Sudan (Berlin, 1893); Herbert Spencer and D. Duncan,
Descriptive Sociology, vol. iv. African Races (1875); A. de Preville, Les
Societes africaines (Paris, 1894); D. Macdonald, Africana or, the Heart of
Heathen Africa, 2 vols. (1882); L. Frobenius, Der Ursprung der
afrikanischen Kulturen (Der Ursprung der Kultur, Band i.) (Berlin, 1898);
Idem, ``Die Masken und Geheimbunde Afrikas,'' Abhandl. Kaiserl. Leopoldin.-
Carolin. Deuts. Akad. Naturforscher, 1899, 1-278; G. Schweinfurth, Artes
africanae Illustrations and Descriptions of . . . industrial Arts, &c. (in
German and English) (Leipzig, 1875); F. Ratzel, Die afsikanischen Bogen . .
. eine anthrop. geographische Studie (Leipzig, 1891); K. Weule, . Der
afrikanische Pfeil (Leipzig, 1899); H. Frobenius, Afrikanische Bautypen
(Dauchau bei Munchen, 1894); H. Schurtz, Die afrikan. Gewerbe (Leipzig,
1900); E. W. Blyden, Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race (1887); James
Stewart, Dawn in the Dark Continent, or Africa and its Missions (Edinburgh
and London, 1903); W. H. J. Bleek, Comparative Grammar of South African
Languages, 2 parts (1862-1869); Idem, Vocabularies of the Districts of
Lourenzo Marques, &c., &c. (1900); R. N. Cust, Sketch of the Modern
Languages of Africa, 2 vols. (1993): F. W. Kolbe, A Language Study based on
Bantu (1888); J. T. Last, Polyglotta Africana orientalis (1885); J.
Torrend, Comparative Grammar of the South African Bantu Languages (1891);
S. W. Koelle, Polyglotta Africana (1854); C. Velten, Schilderungen der
Suaheli von Expeditionen v. Wissmanns, &c., &c. (1900) (narratives taken
down from the mouths of natives); A. Vierkandt, Volksgedichte im westlichen
Central-Afrika (Leipzig, 1895). For latest information the following
periodicals should be consulted:— Journal of the Anthropological Institute
of Great Britain and Ireland; Man (same publishers); Zeitschrift f.
Ethnologie; Archiv f. Anthropologie; L'Anthropologie.
sec. IV. Archaeology and Art.— Publications of the Egyptian Exploration
Fund; A. Mariette-Bey, The Monuments of Upper Egypt (1890); H. Brugsch, Die
Agyptologie (Leipzig, 1891); G. Maspero, L' Archeologie egyptienne (Paris,
1890?); R. Lepsius, Denkmaler aus Agypten und Athiopien . . ., 6 vols.
(Berlin, 1849-1859); G. A. Hoskins, Travels in Ethiopia . . . illustrating
the Antiquities of the Ancient Kingdom of Meroe (1835); Records of the
Past: being English Translations of . . . Egyptian Monuments, vols. 2, 4,
6, 8, 10, 12 (1873-1881); Ditto, new series, 6 vols. (1890-1892); D.
Randall-MacIver and A. Wilkin, Libyan Notes (1901) (archaeology and
ethnology of North Africa); G. Boissier, L'Afrique romaine Promenades
archeologiques en Algerie et en Tunisie, 2nd ed. (Paris, 1901); H. Randall-
MacIver, Mediaeval Rhodesia (1906); Prisse d'Avennes, Histoire de l'art
egyptien d'apres les monuments, &c. with atlas (Paris, 1879; G. Perrot and
C. Chipiez, History of Art in Ancient Egypt, 2 vols. (1993); H. Wallis,
Egyptian Ceramic Art (1900); C. H. Read and O. M. Dalton, Antiquities from
the City of Benin and from other parts of West Africa (1899).
sec. V. Travel and Exploration.—Dean W. Vincent, The Commerce and
Navigation of the Ancients, vol. 2, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
(1807); G. E. de Azurara, Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea
(Eng. trans., 2 vols., 1896, 1899); R. H. Major, Life of Prince Henry the
Navigator (1868); E. G. Ravenstein, ``The Voyages of Diogo Cao and Barth.
Diaz,'' Geogr. Journ., Dec. 1900; O. Hartig, ``Altere Entdeckungsgeschichte
und Kartographie Afrikas,'' Mitt. Geogr. Gesells. Wien, 1905; J. Leyden and
H. Murray, Historical Account of Discoveries, &c., 2 vols., 2nd ed. (1818);
T. E. Bowditch, Account of the Discoveries of the Portuguese in the
Interior of Angola and Mozambique (1824); P. Paulitschke, Die geogr.
Forschung des afrikan. Continents (Vienna, 1880); A. Supan, ``Ein
Jahrhundert der Afrika-Forschung,'' Peterm. Mitt., 1888; R. Brown, The
Story of Africa and its Explorers, 4 vols. (1892-1895); Sir Harry Johnston,
The Nile Quest (1903); James Bruce, Travels to discover the Source of the
Nile in 1768-1773, 5 vols., Edinburgh (1790); Proceedings of the
Association for . . . Discovery of!the Interior Parts of Africa, 1790-1810;
Mungo Park, Travels into the Interior Districts of Africa (1799); Idem,
Journal of a Mission, &c. (1815); Capt. J. K. Tuckey, Narrative of an
Expedition to explore the River Zaire or Congo in 1816 (1818): D. Denham
and H. Clapperton, Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in N. and Cent.
Africa (1826); R. Caillie, Journal d'un voyage a Temboctu et a Jenne, 3
vols., Paris (1830); D. Livingstone, Missionary Travels . . . in South
Africa (1857); The Last Journals of David Livingstone in Central Africa,
ed. H. Waller (1874); H. Barth, Travels and Discoveries in North and
Central Africa, 5 vols. (1857); J. L. Krapf, Travels, Researches, &c., in
Eastern Africa (1860); Sir R. F. Burton, The Lake Regions of Central
Africa, 2 vols. (1860); J. H. Speke, Journal of the Discovery of the Source
of the Nile (1863).: Sir S. W. Baker, The Albert Nyanza, 2 vols. (1866); G.
Schweinfurth, The Heart of Africa, 2 vols. (1873); V. L. Cameron, Across
Africa, 2 vols. (1877); T. Baines, The Gold Regions of South-Eastern Africa
(1877); Sir H. M. Stanley, Through the Dark Continent, 2 vols. (1878);
Idem, In Darkest Africa, 2 vols. (1890); G. Nachtigal, Sahara und Sudan, 3
vols. (Berlin, 1879-1889); P. S. De Brazza, Les Voyages de . . . (1875-
1882), Paris, 1884; i. Thomson, Through Masai Land (1885); H. von Wissmann,
Unter Deutscher Flagge quer durch Afrika, &c. (Berlin, 1889); Idem, My
Second Journey through Equatorial Africa (1891); W. Junker, Travels in
Africa 1875-1886, 3 vols. (1890-1892); L. G. Binger, Du Niger au Golfe de
Guinee, &c. (Paris, 1892); O. Baumann, Durch Masailand zur Nilquelle
(Berlin, 1894); R. Kandt, Caput Nili (Berlin, 1904); C. A. von Gotzen,
Durch Afrika von Ost nach West (Berlin, 1896); L. Vanutelli and C. Citerni,
Seconda spedizione Bottego: L'Omo (Milan, 1899); P. Foureau, D'Alger au
Congo par le Tchad (Paris, 1902); C. Lemaire, Mission scientifique du Ka-
Tanga: Journal de route, 1 vol., Resultats des observations, 16 parts
(Brussels, 1902); A. St. H. Gibbons, Africa from South to North through
Marotseland, 2 vols. (1904); E. Lenfant, La Grande Route du Tchad (Paris,
1905); Boyd Alexander, From the Niger to the Nile, 2 vols. (1907).
sec. VI. Historical and Political.—H.Schurtz, Africa (World's History, vol.
3, part 3) (1903); Sir H. H. Johnston, History of the Colonization of
Africa by Alien Races (Cambridge, 1899) (reprint with additional chapter
``Latest Developments,'' 1905); A. H. L. Heeren, Reflections on the
Politics, Intercourse and Trade of the Ancient Nations of Africa, 2 vols.
(Oxford, 1832); G. Rawlinson, History of Ancient Egypt (1881); A. Graham,
Roman Africa (1902); J. De Barros, Asia: Ira Decada, Lisbon (1552 and 1777-
1778); J. Strandes, Die Portugiesenzeit von . . . Ostafrika (Berlin, 1899);
R. Schuck, Brandenburg- Preussens Kolonial-Politik . . . 1641-1721, 2 vols.
Leipzig, 1889): G. M`Call Theal, History and Ethnography of Africa south of
the Zambesi . . . to 1795, 3 vols. (1907-1910), and History of South
Africa since September 1795 (to 1872) 5 vols. (1908); Idem, Records of
South-Eastern Africa, 9 vols., 1898-1903; Lady Lugard, A Tropical
Dependency: Outline of the History of the Western Sudan, &c.; (1905); Sir
F. Hertslet, The Map of Africa by Treaty, 3 vols. (3rd ed., 1909); J . S.
Keltie, The Partition of Africa, 2nd ed. (1895); F. Van Ortroy, Conventions
internationales definissant les limites . . . en Afrique (Brussels, 1898);
General Act of the Conference of Berlin, 1885: The Surveys and Explorations
of British Africa (Colonial Reports, No. 500) (1906), and annual reports
thereafter; Sir F. D. Lugard, The Rise or our East African Empire, 2 vols.
(1893); E. Petit, Les colonies francaises, 2 vols. (Paris, 1902-1904); E.
Rouard de Card, Les Traites de protectorat conclus par la France en
Afrique, 1870-1895 (Paris, 1897); A. J. de Araujo, Colonies portuguaises
d'Afrique Lisbon, 1900); B.Trognitz, ``Neue Arealbestimmung des Continents
Afrika,'' Petermanns Mitt., 1893, 220-221; A. Supan, ``Die Bevolkerung der
Erde,'' xii., Peterm. Mitt. Erganzungsh. 146 (Gotha, 1904) (deals with
areas as well as population).
sec. VII. Commerce and Economics.—A. Silva White, The Development of
Africa, 2nd ed. (1892): K. Dove, ``Grundzuge einer Wirtschaftsgeographie
Afrikas,'' Geographische Zeitschrift, 1905, i-18; E. Hahn, ``Die Stellung
Afrikas in der Geschichte des Welthandels,'' Verhandl. 11. Deutsch.
Geographentags zu Bremen (Berlin, 1896); L. de Launay, Les Richesses
minerales de l'Afrique (Paris, 1903); K. Futterer, Afrika in seiner
Bedeutung fur die Goldproduktion (Berlin, 1894); P. Reichard, ``Das
afrikan. Elfenbein und sein Handel,'' Deutsche geogr. Blatter (Bremen,
1889); Sir A. Moloney, Sketch of the Forestry of West Africa (1887);
Dewevre, ``Les Caoutchoucs africains,'' Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, 1895; Sir
T. F. Buxton, The African Slave Trade and its Remedy (1840); C. M. A.
Lavigerie, L'Esclavage africain (Paris, 1888); E. de Renty, Les chemins de
fer coloniaux en Afrique, 3 vols. (Paris, 1903-1905); H. Meyer, Die
Eisenbahnen im tropischen Afrika (Leipzig, 1902); G. Grenfell, ``The Upper
Congo as a Waterway,'' Geogr. Journ., Nov. 1902; A. St. H. Gibbons, ``The
Nile and Zambezi Systems as Waterways,'' Journ. R. Colon. Inst., 1901; K.
Lent, ``Verkehrsmittel in Ostafrika,'' Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 1894;
``Trade of the United Kingdom with the African Continent in 1898-1902,''
Board of T. Journ., 1903; Diplomatic and Consular Peports, Annual Series;
Colonial Reports; T. H. Parke, Guide to Health in Africa (1893); R. W.
Felkin, Geographical Distribution of Tropical Diseases in Africa (1895)
The following bibliographies may also be consulted: J. Gay, Bibliographie
des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique, &c. (San Remo, 1875); P. Paulitschke,
Die Afrika-Literatur von 1500 bis 1750 (Vienne, 1882); Catalogue of the
Colonial Office Library, vol. 3, Africa (specially for government
publications). (E. HE.) 1 Where no place of publication is given, London is
to be understood.