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Микроэкономика экономика





Bomone Wa-Kikuyu

Kunabembe Tribes of the Congo Wa-Kamba

Fang (recent immigrants bend Wa-Pokomo

from the Congo group) Ba-Kessu Wa-Duruma

Ba-Tetela Wa-Digo

Ba-Songo Mino Wa-Giriama

Ba-Kuba Wa-Taita

Ba-Kongo, Ba-Lolo Wa-Nyatura

including— Ba-Kuti Wa-Iramba

Mushi-Kongo Ba-Mbala Wa-Mbugwe

Mussorongo Ba-Huana Wa-Kaguru

Kabinda Ba-Yaka Wa-Gogo {


Ka-Kongo Ba-Pindi Wa-Chaga { Masai

Ba-Vili Ba-Kwese { element

Ma-Yumbe &c.

Ba-Lumbo Older Bantu

Ba-Sundi Tribes of the Congo Wa-Nyamwezi,

Ba-Bwende bank including—

Ba-Lali Wa-Genia Wa-Sukuma


Ba-Kunya Ba-Soko Wa-Sumbwa


Ba-Poto Wa-Nyanyembe }to

Mobali Wa-Jui


Mogwandi Wa-Kimbu }of

Na-Ngala{ Connected Wa-Kanongo


Ba-Bangi{ with Zandeh Wa-Wende


{ group



Ba-Nunu Wa-Gunda

Ba-Loi Wa-Guru

Ba-Teke Wa-Galla

Wa-Pfuru Wa-Sambara

Wa-Mbundu Wa-Seguha

Wa-Mfumu Wa-Nguru

Ba-Nsinik Wa-Sagara

Ma-Wumba Wa-Doe

Ma-Yakalia Wa-Khutu

&c Wa-Sarmo




TO SOUTHERN Wa-Swahili (with Arab

BANTU elements)

Amoela Connected are—

Ganguela Wa-Kisi

Kioko Wa-Mpoto }

Minungo Ba-Tonga }

Imbangala Ba-Tumbuka }

Ba-Achinji Wa-Nyika }

Golo Wa-Nyamwanga }

Akin to

Hollo A-Mambwe }


&c. Wa-Fipa }


Mbunda peoples, Wa-Rungu }


including— A-Wemba }

Bihe A-Chewa }

Dembo A-Maravi }

Mbaka Ba-Senga }

Ngola Ba-Bisa }

Bondo A-Jawa (Yaos)

Ba-Ngala Wa-Mwera

Songo Wa-Gindo

Haku Ma-Konde

Lubolo Ma-Wia

Kisama Ma-Nganja

&c. Ma-Kua


(South and South-East Africa)

Ba-Nyai } Ama-Zulu, including—

Ma-Kalanga, } Affinity Ama-Swazi

including } with Ama-Tonga

Mashona } Bechuana Matabele

Ba-Ronga } Angoni

Ba-Chuana, Ma-Gwangwara

including— Ma-Huhu

Ba-Tlapin Ma-Viti

Ba-Rolong Ma-Situ

Ba-Ratlou Ma-Henge

Ba-Taung &c.

Ba-Rapulana Ama-Xosa, including—

Ba-Seleka Ama-Gcaleka

Ba-Hurutsi Ama-Hahebe

Ba-Tlaru Ama-Ngqika

Ba-Mangwato Ama-Tembu

Ba-Tauana Ama-Pondo

Ba-Ngwaketse &c.

Ba-Kuena Ova-Herero

&c. Ova-Mpo




Hottentots, }

including— } S. W.

Namaqua } Africa

Koranna }



Hova Sakalava, including—

Betsileo (slight Bantu admixture) Menabe





Malagasy, including—

Bestimisaraka Antanosi

Antambahoaka Antsihanaka

Antaimoro Antanala

Antaifasina Antaisara

Antaisaka &c.


The origin and meaning of the name of the continent are discussed

elsewhere (see AFRICA, ROMAN.) The word Africa was applied originally to

the country in the immediate neighbourhood of Carthage, that part of the

continent first known to the Romans, and it was subsequently extended with

their increasing knowledge, till it came at last to include all that they

knew of the continent. The Arabs still confine the name Ifrikia to the

territory of Tunisia.

Phoenician and Greek colonization.

The valley of the lower Nile was the home in remotest antiquity of a

civilized race. Egyptian culture had, however, remarkably little direct

influence on the rest of the continent, a result due in large measure to

the fact that Egypt is shut off landwards by immense deserts. If ancient

Egypt and Ethiopia (q.v.) be excluded, the story of Africa is largely a

record of the doings of its Asiatic and European conquerors and colonizers,

Abyssinia being the only state which throughout historic times has

maintained its independence. The countries bordering the Mediterranean were

first exploited by the Phoenicians, whose earliest settlements were made

before 1000 B.C. Carthage, founded about 800 B.C., speedily grew into a

city without rival in the Mediterranean, and the Phoenicians, subduing the

Berber tribes, who then as now formed the bulk of the population, became

masters of all the habitable region of North Africa west of the Great

Syrtis, and found in commerce a source of immense prosperity. Both

Egyptians and Carthaginians made attempts to reach the unknown parts of the

continent by sea. Herodotus relates that an expedition under Phoenician

navigators, employed by Necho, king of Egypt, c. 600 B.C., circumnavigated

Africa from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, a voyage stated to have been

accomplished in three years. Apart from the reported circumnavigation of

the continent, the west coast was well known to the Phoenicians as far as

Cape Nun, and c. 520 B.C. Hanno, a Carthaginian, explored the coast as far,

perhaps, as the Bight of Benin, certainly as far as Sierra Leone. A vague

knowledge of the Niger regions was also possessed by the Phoenicians.

Meantime the first European colonists had planted themselves in Africa.

At the point where the continent approaches nearest the Greek islands,

Greeks founded the city of Cyrene (c. 631 B.C..) Cyrenaica became a

flourishing colony, though being hemmed in on all sides by absolute desert

it had little or no influence on inner Africa. The Greeks, however, exerted

a powerful influence in Egypt. To Alexander the Great the city of

Alexandria owes its foundation (332 B.C.), and under the Hellenistic

dynasty of the Ptolemies attempts were made to penetrate southward, and in

this way was obtained some knowledge of Abyssinia. Neither Cyrenaica nor

Egypt was a serious rival to the Carthaginians, but all three powers were

eventually supplanted by the Romans. After centuries of rivalry for

supremacy1 the struggle was ended by the fall of Carthage in 146 B.C.

Within little more than a century from that date Egypt and Cyrene had

become incorporated in the Roman empire. Under Rome the settled portions of

the country were very prosperous, and a Latin strain was introduced into

the land. Though Fezzan was occupied by them, the Romans elsewhere found

the Sahara an impassable barrier. Nubia and Abyssinia were reached, but an

expedition sent by the emperor Nero to discover the source of the Nile

ended in failure. The utmost extent of geographical knowledge of the

continent is shown in the writings of Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.), who knew

of or guessed the existence of the great lake reservoirs of the Nile and

had heard of the river Niger. Still Africa for the civilized world remained

simply the countries bordering the Mediterranean. The continual struggle

between Rome and the Berber tribes; the introduction of Christianity and

the glories and sufferings of the Egyptian and African Churches; the

invasion and conquest of the African provinces by the Vandals in the 5th

century; the passing of the supreme power in the following century to the

Byzantine empire—all these events are told fully elsewhere.

In the 7th century of the Christian era occurred an event destined to

have a permanent influence on the whole continent.

North Africa conquered by the Arabs.

Invading first Egypt, an Arab host, fanatical believers in the new faith

of Mahomet, conquered the whole country from the Red Sea to the Atlantic

and carried the Crescent into Spain. Throughout North Africa Christianity

well-nigh disappeared, save in Egypt (where the Coptic Church was suffered

to exist), and Upper Nubia and Abyssinia, which were not subdued by the

Moslems. In the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries the Arabs in Africa were

numerically weak; they held the countries they had conquered by the sword

only, but in the 11th century there was a great Arab immigration, resulting

in a large absorption of Berber blood. Even before this the Berbers had

very generally adopted the speech and religion of their conquerors. Arab

influence and the Mahommedan religion thus became indelibly stamped on

northern Africa. Together they spread southward across the Sahara. They

also became firmly established along the eastern sea-board, where Arabs,

Persians and Indians planted flourishing colonies, such as Mombasa, Malindi

and Sofala, playing a role, maritime and commercial, analogous to that

filled in earlier centuries by the Carthaginians on the northern sea-board.

Of these eastern cities and states both Europe and the Arabs of North

Africa were long ignorant.

The first Arab invaders had recognized the authority of the caliphs of

Bagdad, and the Aghlabite dynasty—founded by Aghlab, one of Haroun al

Raschid's generals, at the close of the 8th century—ruled as vassals of the

caliphate. However, early in the 10th century the Fatimite dynasty

established itself in Egypt, where Cairo had been founded A.D. 968, and

from there ruled as far west as the Atlantic. Later still arose other


Appearance of the Turks.

such as the Almoravides and Almohades. Eventually the Turks, who had

conquered Constantinople in 1453, and had seized Egypt in 1517, established

the regencies of Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli (between 1519 and 1551),

Morocco remaining an independent Arabized Berber state under the Sharifan

dynasty, which had its beginnings at the end of the 13th century. Under the

earlier dynasties Arabian or Moorish culture had attained a high degree of

excellence, while the spirit of adventure and the proselytizing zeal of the

followers of Islam led to a considerable extension of the knowledge of the

continent. This was rendered more easy by their use of the camel (first

introduced into Africa by the Persian conquerors of Egypt), which enabled

the Arabs to traverse the desert. In this way Senegambia and the middle

Niger regions fell under the influence of the Arabs and Berbers, but it was

not until 1591 that Timbuktu—a city founded in the 11th century—became

Moslem. That city had been reached in 1352 by the great Arab traveller Ibn

Batuta, to whose journey to Mombasa and Quiloa (Kilwa) was due the first

accurate knowledge of those flourishing Moslem cities on the east African

sea-boards. Except along this sea-board, which was colonized directly from

Asia, Arab progress southward was stopped by the broad belt of dense forest

which, stretching almost across the continent somewhat south of 10 deg. N.,

barred their advance as effectually as had the Sahara that of their

predecessors, and cut them off from knowledge of the Guinea coast and of

all Africa beyond. One of the regions which came latest under Arab control

was that of Nubia, where a Christian civilization and state existed up to

the 14th century.

For a time the Moslem conquests in South Europe had virtually made of the

Mediterranean an Arab lake, but the expulsion in the 11th century of the

Saracens from Sicily and southern Italy by the Normans was followed by

descents of the conquerors on Tunisia and Tripoli. Somewhat later a busy

trade with the African coast-lands, and especially with Egypt, was

developed by Venice, Pisa, Genoa and other cities of North Italy. By the

end of the 15th century Spain had completely thrown off the Moslem yoke,

but even while the Moors were still in Granada, Portugal was strong enough

to carry the war into Africa. In 1415 a Portuguese force captured the

citadel of Ceuta on the Moorish coast. From that time onward Portugal


Spain and Portugal invade the Barbary States.

interfered in the affairs of Morocco, while Spain acquired many ports in

Algeria and Tunisia. Portugal, however, suffered a crushing defeat in 1578

at al Kasr al Kebir, the Moors being led by Abd el Malek I. of the then

recently established Sharifan dynasty. By that time the Spaniards had lost

almost all their African possessions. The Barbary states, primarily from

the example of the Moors expelled from Spain, degenerated into mere

communities of pirates, and under Turkish influence civilization and

commerce declined. The story of these states from the beginning of the 16th

century to the third decade of the 19th century is largely made up of

piratical exploits on the one hand and of ineffectual reprisals on the

other. In Algiers, Tunis and other cities were thousands of Christian


But with the battle of Ceuta Africa had ceased to belong solely to the

Mediterranean world. Among those who fought there was

Discovery of the Guinea coast—Rise of the slave trade.

one. Prince Henry ``the Navigator,'' son of King John I., who was fired

with the ambition to acquire for Portugal the unknown parts of Africa.

Under his inspiration and direction was begun that series of voyages of

exploration which resulted in the circumnavigation of Africa and the

establishment of Portuguese sovereignty over large areas of the coast-

lands. Cape Bojador was doubled in 1434, Cape Verde in 1445, and by 1480

the whole Guinea coast was known. In 1482 Diogo Cam or Cao discovered the

mouth of the Congo, the Cape of Good Hope was doubled by Bartholomew Diaz

in 1488, and in 1498 Vasco da Gama, after having rounded the Cape, sailed

up the east coast, touched at Sofala and Malindi, and went thence to India.

Over all the countries discovered by their navigators Portugal claimed

sovereign rights, but these were not exercised in the extreme south of the

continent. The Guinea coast, as the first discovered and the nearest to

Europe, was first exploited. Numerous forts and trading stations were

established, the earliest being Sao Jorge da Mina (Elmina), begun in 1482.

The chief commodities dealt in were slaves, gold, ivory and spices. The

discovery of America (1492) was followed by a great development of the

slave trade, which, before the Portuguese era, had been an overland trade

almost exclusively confined to Mahommedan Africa. The lucrative nature of

this trade and the large quantities of alluvial gold obtained by the

Portuguese drew other nations to the Guinea coast. English mariners went

thither as early as 1553, and they were followed by Spaniards, Dutch,

French, Danish and other adventurers. Much of Senegambia was made known as

a result of quests during the 16th century for the ``hills of gold'' in

Bambuk and the fabled wealth of Timbuktu, but the middle Niger was not

reached. The supremacy along the coast passed in the 17th century from

Portugal to Holland and from Holland in the 18th and 19th centuries to

France and England. The whole coast from Senegal to Lagos was dotted with

forts and ``factories'' of rival powers, and this international patchwork

persists though all the hinterland has become either French or British


Southward from the mouth of the Congo2 to the inhospitable region of

Damaraland, the Portuguese, from 1491 onward, acquired influence over the

Bantu-Negro inhabitants, and in the early part of the 16th century through

their efforts Christianity was largely adopted in the native kingtom of

Congo. An irruption of cannibals from the interior later in the same

century broke the power of this semi-Christian state, and Portuguese

activity was transferred to a great extent farther south, Sao Paulo de

Loanda being founded in 1576. The sovereignty of Portugal over this coast

region, except for the mouth of the Congo, has been once only challenged by

a European power, and that was in 1640-1648, when the Dutch held the


Neglecting the comparatively poor and thinly inhabited regions of South

Africa, the Portuguese no sooner discovered than they coveted the

flourishing cities held by Arabized peoples between Sofala and Cape

Guardafui. By 1520 all these Moslem

The Portuguese in East Africa and Abyssinia.

sultanates had been seized by Portugal, Mozambique being chosen as the

chief city of her East African possessions. Nor was Portuguese activity

confined to the coast-lands. The lower and middle Zambezi valley was

explored (16th and 17th centuries), and here the Portuguese found semi-

civilized Bantu-Negro tribes, who had been for many years in contact with

the coast Arabs. Strenuous efforts were made to obtain possession of the

country (modern Rhodesia) known to them as the kingdom or empire of

Monomotapa, where gold had been worked by the natives from about the 12th

century A.D., and whence the Arabs, whom the Portuguese dispossessed, were

still obtaining supplies in the 16th century. Several expeditions were

despatched inland from 1569 onward and considerable quantities of gold were

obtained. Portugal's hold on the interior, never very effective, weakened

during the 17th century, and in the middle of the 18th century ceased with

the abandonment of the forts in the Manica district.

At the period of her greatest power Portugal exercised a strong influence

in Abyssinia also. In the ruler of Abyssinia (to whose dominions a

Portuguese traveller had penetrated before Vasco da Gama's memorable

voyage) the Portuguese imagined they had found the legendary Christian

king, Prester John, and when the complete overthrow of the native dynasty

and the Christian religion was imminent by the victories of Mahommedan

invaders, the exploits of a band of 400 Portuguese under Christopher da

Gama during 1541-1543 turned the scale in favour of Abyssinia and had thus

an enduring result on the future of North-East Africa. After da Gama's time

Portuguese Jesuits resorted to Abyssinia. While they failed in their

efforts to convert the Abyssinians to Roman Catholicism they acquired an

extensive knowledge of the country. Pedro Paez in 1615, and, ten years

later, Jeronimo Lobo, both visited the sources of the Blue Nile. In 1663

the Portuguese, who had outstayed their welcome, were expelled from the

Abyssinian dominions. At this time Portuguese influence on the Zanzibar

coast was waning before the power of the Arabs of Muscat, and by 1730 no

point on the east coast north of Cape Delgado was held by Portugal.

It has been seen that Portugal took no steps to acquire the southern part

of the continent. To the Portuguese the Cape of

English and Dutch at Table Bay—Cape Colony founded.

Good Hope was simply a landmark on the road to India, and mariners of other

nations who followed in their wake used Table Bay only as a convenient spot

wherein to refit on their voyage to the East. By the beginning of the 17th

century the bay was much resorted to for this purpose, chiefly by English

and Dutch vessels. In 1620, with the object of forestalling the Dutch, two

officers of the East India Company, on their own initiative, took

possession of Table Bay in the name of King James, fearing otherwise that

English ships would be ``frustrated of watering but by license.'' Their

action was not approved in London and the proclamation they issued remained

without effect. The Netherlands profited by the apathy of the English. On

the advice of sailors who had been shipwrecked in Table Bay the Netherlands

East India Company, in 1651, sent out a fleet of three small vessels under

Jan van Riebeek which reached Table Bay on the 6th of April 1652, when,

164 years after its discovery, the first permanent white settlement was

made in South Africa. The Portuguese, whose power in Africa was already

waning, were not in a position to interfere with the Dutch plans, and

England was content to seize the island of St Helena as her half-way house

to the East3. In its inception the settlement at the Cape was not intended

to become an African colony, but was regarded as the most westerly outpost

of the Dutch East Indies. Nevertheless, despite the paucity of ports and

the absence of navigable rivers, the Dutch colonists, freed from any

apprehension of European trouble by the friendship between Great Britain

and Holland, and leavened by Huguenot blood, gradually spread northward,

stamping their language, law and religion indelibly upon South Africa. This

process, however, was exceedingly slow.

During the 18th century there is little to record in the history of

Africa. The nations of Europe, engaged in the later half of the

Waning and revival of interest in Africa.

century in almost constant warfare, and struggling for supremacy in America

and the East, to a large extent lost their interest in the continent. Only

on the west coast was there keen rivalry, and here the motive was securance

of trade rather than territorial acquisitions. In this century the slave

trade reached its highest development, the trade in gold, ivory, gum and

spices being small in comparison. In the interior of the

continent—Portugal's energy being expended—no interest was shown, the

nations with establishments on the coast ``taking no further notice of the

inhabitants or their land than to obtain at the easiest rate what they

procure with as little trouble as possible, or to carry them off for slaves

to their plantations in America'' (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 3rd ed.,

1797). Even the scanty knowledge acquired by the ancients and the Arabs was

in the main forgotten or disbelieved. It was the period when — Geographers,

in Afric maps, With savage pictures filled their gaps, And o'er unhabitable

downs Placed elephants for want of towns.

(Poetry, a Rhapsody. By Jonathan Swift.)

The prevailing ignorance may be gauged by the statement in the third

edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica that ``the Gambia and Senegal

rivers are only branches of the Niger.'' But the closing years of the 18th

century, which witnessed the partial awakening of the public conscience of

Europe to the iniquities of the slave trade, were also notable for the

revival of interest in inner Africa. A society, the African Association,4

was formed in London in 1788 for the exploration of the interior of the

continent. The era of great discoveries had begun a little earlier in the

famous journey (1770-1772) of James Bruce through Abyssinia and Sennar,

during which he determined the course of the Blue Nile. But it was through

the agents of the African Association that knowledge was gained of the

Niger regions. The Niger itself was first reached by Mungo Park, who

travelled by way of the Gambia, in 1795. Park, on a second journey in 1805,

passed Timbuktu and descended the Niger to Bussa, where he lost his life,

having just failed to solve the question as to where the river reached the

ocean. (This problem was ultimately solved by Richard Lander and his

brother in 1830.) The first scientific explorer of South-East Africa, Dr

Francisco de Lacerda, a Portuguese, also lost his life in that country.

Lacerda travelled up the Zambezi to Tete, going thence towards Lake Mweru,

near which he died in 1798. The first recorded crossing of Africa was

accomplished between the years 1802 and 1811 by two half-caste Portuguese

traders, Pedro Baptista and A. Jose, who passed from Angola eastward to the


Although the Napoleonic wars distracted the attention of Europe from

exploratory work in Africa, those wars nevertheless

Effects of the Napoleonic wars—Britain seizes the Cape.

exercised great influence on the future of the continent, both in Egypt and

South Africa. The occupation of Egypt (1798-1803) first by France and then

by Great Britain resulted in an effort by Turkey to regain direct control

over that country,5 followed in 1811 by the establishment under Mehemet Ali

of an almost independent state, and the extension of Egyptian rule over the

eastern Sudan (from 1820 onward). In South Africa the struggle with

Napoleon caused Great Britain to take possession of the Dutch settlements

at the Cape, and in 1814 Cape Colony, which had been continuously occupied

by British troops since 1806, was formally ceded to the British crown.

The close of the European conflicts with the battle of Waterloo was

followed by vigorous efforts on the part of the British government to

become better acquainted with Africa, and to substitute colonization and

legitimate trade for the slave traffic, declared illegal for British

subjects in 1807 and abolished by all other European powers by 1836. To

West Africa Britain devoted much attention. The slave trade abolitionists

had already, in 1788, formed a settlement at Sierra Leone, on the Guinea

coast, for freed slaves, and from this establishment grew the colony of

Sierra Leone, long notorious, by reason of its deadly climate, as ``The

White Man's Grave.''6 Farther east the establishments on the Gold Coast

began to take a part in the politics of the interior, and the first British

mission to Kumasi, despatched in 1817, led to the assumption of a

protectorate over the maritime tribes heretofore governed by the Ashanti.

An expedition sent in 1816 to explore the Congo from its mouth did not

succeed in getting beyond the rapids which bar the way to the interior, but

in the central Sudan much better results were obtained. In 1823 three

English travellers, Walter Oudney, Dixon Denham and Hugh Clapperton,

reached Lake Chad from Tripoli—the first white men to reach that lake. The

partial exploration of Bornu and the Hausa states by Clapperton, which

followed, revealed the existence of large and flourishing cities and a semi-

civilized people in a region hitherto unknown. The discovery in 1830 of the

mouth of the Niger by Clapperton's servant Lander, already mentioned, had

been preceded by the journeys of Major A.G. Laing (1826) and Rene Caillie

(1827) to Timbuktu, and was followed (1832-1833) by the partial ascent of

the Benue affluent of the Niger by Macgregor Laird. In 1841 a disastrous

attempt was made to plant a white colony on the lower Niger, an expedition

(largely philanthropic and antislavery in its inception) which ended in

utter failure. Nevertheless from that time British traders remained on the

lower Niger, their continued presence leading ultimately to the acquisition

of political rights over the delta and the Hausa states by Great Britain.7

Another endeavour by the British government to open up commercial relations

with the Niger countries resulted in the addition of a vast amount of

information concerning the countries between Timbuktu and Lake Chad, owing

to the labours of Heinrich Barth (1850-1855), originally a subordinate, but

the only surviving member of the expedition sent out.

Meantime considerable changes had been made in other parts of the

continent, the most notable being—the occupation of Algiers by France in

1830, an end being thereby put to the piratical proceedings of the Barbary

states; the continued expansion southward of Egyptian authority with the

consequent additions to the knowledge of the Nile; and the establishment of

independent states ((Orange Free State and the Transvaal) by Dutch farmers

(Boers) dissatisfied with British rule in Cape Colony. Natal, so named by

Vasco da Gama, had been made a British colony (1843), the attempt of the

Boers to acquire it being frustrated. The city of Zanzibar, on the island

of that name, founded in 1832 by Seyyid Said of Muscat, rapidly attained

importance, and Arabs began to penetrate to the great lakes of East

Africa,8 concerning which little more was known (and less believed) than in

the time of Ptolemy. Accounts of a vast inland sea, and the discovery in

1848-1840, by the missionaries Ludwig Krapf and J.Rebmann, of the snow-clad

mountains of Kilimanjaro and Kenya, stimulated in Europe the desire for

further knowledge.

At this period, the middle of the 19th century, Protestant missions were

carrying on active propaganda on the Guinea

The era of great explorers.

coast, in South Africa and in the Zanzibar dominions. Their work, largely

beneficent, was being conducted in regions and among peoples little known,

and in many instances missionaries turned explorers and became pioneers of

trade and empire. One of the first to attempt to fill up the remaining

blank spaces in the map was David Livings tone, who had been engaged since

1840 in missionary work north of the Orange. In 1849 Livingstone crossed

the Kalahari Desert from south to north and reached Lake Ngami, and between

1851 and 1856 he traversed the continent from west to east, making known

the great waterways of the upper Zambezi. During these journeyings

Livingstone discovered, November 1855, the famous Victoria Falls, so named

after the queen of England. In 1858-1864 the lower Zambezi, the Shire and

Lake Nyasa were explored by Livingstone, Nyasa having been first reached by

the confidential slave of Antonio da Silva Porto, a Portuguese trader

established at Bihe in Angola, who crossed Africa during 1853-1856 from

Benguella to the mouth of the Rovuma. While Livingstone circumnavigated

Nyasa, the more northerly lake, Tanganyika, had been visited (1858) by

Richard Burton and J. H. Speke, and the last named had sighted Victoria

Nyanza. Returning to East Africa with J. A. Grant, Speke reached, in 1862,

the river which flowed from Victoria Nyanza, and following it (in the main)

down to Egypt, had the distinction of being the first man to read the

riddle of the Nile. In 1864 another Nile explorer, Samuel Baker, discovered

the Albert Nyanza, the chief western reservoir of the river. In 1866

Livingstone began his last great journey, in which he made known Lakes

Mweru and Bangweulu and discovered the Lualaba (the upper part of the

Congo), but died (1873) before he had been able to demonstrate its ultimate

course, believing indeed that the Lualaba belonged to the Nile system.

Livingstone's lonely death in the heart of Africa evoked a keener desire

than ever to complete the work he left undone. H. M. Stanley, who had in

1871 succeeded in finding and succouring Livingstone, started again for

Zanzibar in 1874, and in the most memorable of all exploring expeditions in

Africa circumnavigated Victoria Nyanza and Tanganyika, and, striking

farther inland to the Lualaba, followed that river down to the Atlantic

Ocean—reached in August 1877—and proved it to be the Congo. Stanley had

been preceded, in 1874, at Nyangwe, Livingstone's farthest point on the

Lualaba, by Lovett Cameron, who was, however, unable farther to explore its

course, making his way to the west coast by a route south of the Congo.

While the great mystery of Central Africa was being solved explorers were

also active in other parts of the continent. Southern Morocco, the Sahara

and the Sudan were traversed in many directions between 1860 and 1875 by

Gerhard Rohlfs, Georg Schweinfurth and Gustav Nachtigal. These travellers

not only added considerably to geographical knowledge, but obtained

invaluable information concerning the people, languages and natural history

of the countries in which they sojourned.9 Among the discoveries of

Schweinfurth was one that confirmed the Greek legends of the existence

beyond Egypt of a pygmy race. But the first discoverer of the dwarf races

of Central Africa was Paul du Chaillu, who found them in the Ogowe district

of the west coast in 1865, five years before Schweinfurth's first meeting

with the Pygmies; du Chaillu having previously, as the result of journeys

in the Gabun country between 1855 and 1859, made popular in Europe the

knowledge of the existence of the gorilla, perhaps the gigantic ape seen by

Hanno the Carthaginian, and whose existence, up to the middle of the 19th

century, was thought to be as legendary as that of the Pygmies of


In South Africa the filling up of the map also proceeded apace. The

finding, in 1869, of rich diamond fields in the valley of the Vaal river,

near its confluence with the Orange, caused a rush of emigrants to that

district, and led to conflicts between the Dutch and British authorities

and the extension of British authority northward. In 1871 the ruins of the

great Zimbabwe in Mashonaland, the chief fortress and distributing centre

of the race which in medieval times worked the goldfields of South-East

Africa, were explored by Karl Mauch. In the following year F. C. Selous

began his journeys over South Central Africa, which continued for more than

twenty years and extended over every part of Mashonaland and Matabeleland.

(F. R. C.)


In the last quarter of the 19th century the map of Africa was

transformed. After the discovery of the Congo the story of exploration

takes second place; the continent becomes the theatre of European

expansion. Lines of partition, drawn often through trackless wildernesses,

marked out the possessions of Germany, France, Great Britain and other

powers. Railways penetrated the interior, vast areas were opened up to

civilized occupation, and from ancient Egypt to the Zambezi the continent

was startled into new life.

Before 1875 the only powers with any considerable interest in Africa were

Britain, Portugal and France. Between 1815 and 1850, as has been shown

above, the British government devoted much energy, not always informed by

knowledge, to western and southern Africa. In both directions Great Britain

had met with much discouragement; on the west coast, disease, death,

decaying trade and useless conflicts with savage foes had been the normal

experience; in the south recalcitrant Boers and hostile Kaffirs caused

almost endless trouble. The visions once entertained of vigorous negro

communities at once civilized and Christian faded away; to the hot fit of

philanthropy succeeded the cold fit of indifference and a disinclination to

bear the burden of empire. The low-water mark of British interest in South

Africa was reached in 1854 when independence was forced on the Orange River

Boers, while in 1865 the mind of the nation was fairly reflected by the

unanimous resolution of a representative House of Commons committee:10

``that all further extension of territory or assumption of government, or

new treaty offering any protection to native tribes, would be

inexpedient.'' For nearly twenty years the spirit of that resolution

paralysed British action in Africa, although many circumstances—the absence

of any serious European rival, the inevitable border disputes with

uncivilized races, and the activity of missionary and trader—conspired to

make British influence dominant in large areas of the continent over which

the government exercised no definite authority. The freedom with which

blood and treasure were spent to enforce respect for the British flag or to

succour British subjects in distress, as in the Abyssinian campaign of 1867-

68 and the Ashanti war of 1873, tended further to enhance the reputation of

Great Britain among African races, while, as an inevitable result of the

possession of India, British officials exercised considerable power at the

court of Zanzibar, which indeed owed its separate existence to a decision

of Lord Canning, the governor-general of India, in 1861 recognizing the

division of the Arabian and African dominions of the imam of Muscat.

It has been said that Great Britain was without serious rival. On the

Gold Coast she had bought the Danish forts in 1850 and acquired the Dutch,

1871-1872, in exchange for establishments in Sumatra. But Portugal still

held, both in the east and west of Africa, considerable stretches of the

tropical coast-lands, and it was in 1875 that she obtained, as a result of

the arbitration of Marshal MacMahon, possession of the whole of Delagoa

Bay, to the southern part of which England also laid claim by virtue of a

treaty of cession concluded with native chiefs in 1823. The only other

European power which at the period under consideration had considerable

possessions in Africa was France. Besides Algeria, France had settlements

on the Senegal, where in 1854 the appointment of General Faidherbe as

governor marked the beginning of a policy of expansion; she had also

various posts on the upper Guinea coast, had taken the estuary of the Gabun

as a station for her navy, and had acquired (1862) Obok at the southern

entrance to the Red Sea.

In North Africa the Turks had (in 1835) assumed direct control of

Tripoli, while Morocco had fallen into a state of decay though retaining

its independence. The most remarkable change was in Egypt, where the

Khedive Ismail had introduced a somewhat fantastic imitation of European

civilization. In addition Ismail had conquered Darfur, annexed Harrar and

the Somali ports on the Gulf of Aden, was extending his power southward to

the equatorial lakes, and even contemplated reaching the Indian Ocean. The

Suez Canal, opened in 1869, had a great influence on the future of Africa,

as it again made Egypt the highway to the East, to the detriment of the

Cape route.

Any estimate of the area of African territory held by European nations in

1875 is necessarily but approximate, and varies chiefly

The division of the continent in 1875.

as the compiler of statistics rejects or accepts the vague claims of

Portugal to sovereignty over the hinterland of her coast possessions. At

that period other European nations—with the occasional exception of Great

Britain—were indifferent to Portugal's pretensions, and her estimate of her

African empire as covering over 700,000 sq. m. was not challenged.11 But

the area under effective control of Portugal at that time did not exceed

40,000 sq. m. Great Britain then held some 250,000 sq. m., France about

170,000 sq. m. and Spain 1000 sq.m. The area of the independent Dutch

republics (the Transvaal and Orange Free State) was some 150,000 sq. m., so

that the total area of Africa ruled by Europeans did not exceed 1,271,000

sq. m.; roughly one-tenth of the continent. This estimate, as it admits the

full extent of Portuguese claims and does not include Madagascar, in

reality considerably overstates the case.

Egypt and the Egyptian Sudan, Tunisia and Tripoli were subject in

differing ways to the overlordship of the sultan of Turkey, and with these

may be ranked, in the scale of organized governments, the three principal

independent states, Morocco, Abyssinia and Zanzibar, as also the negro

republic of Liberia. There remained, apart from the Sahara, roughly one

half of Africa, lying mostly within the tropics, inhabited by a multitude

of tribes and peoples living under various forms of government and subject

to frequent changes in respect of political organization. In this region

were the negro states of Ashanti, Dahomey and Benin on the west coast, the

Mahommedan sultanates of the central Sudan, and a number of negro kingdoms

in the east central and south central regions. Of these Uganda on the north-

west shores of Victoria Nyanza, Cazembe and Muata Hianvo (or Yanvo) may be

mentioned. The two last-named kingdoms occupied respectively the south-

eastern and south-western parts of the Congo basin. In all this vast region

the Negro and Negro-Bantu races predominated, for the most part untouched

by Mahommedanism or Christian influences. They lacked political cohesion,

and possessed neither the means nor the inclination to extend their

influence beyond their own borders. The exploitation of Africa continued to

be entirely the work of alien races.

The causes which led to the partition of Africa may now be considered.

They are to be found in the economic and political

Causes which led to partition.

state of western Europe at the time. Germany, strong and united as the

result of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, was seeking new outlets for her

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